What is 5-axis Machining?

2022-02-04 20:56:00

The process involves using a CNC to move a cutting device or different parts in five different axes at the same time. This provides room for producing very complex parts, which is why 5-axis CNC milling is very common in the aerospace business. One of the biggest factors influencing the use of 5-axis CNC machines is the need to increase proficiency and reduce production time from the start of the actual process to completion.

 The ability to avoid collisions by rotating the table or cutting tool while the part is fixed to the equipment provides room for quick access to the part's geometry, which is another factor. Finally, the life of the equipment can be extended or extended by rotating the table or cutting equipment to maintain an optimal cut position and consistent chip loading.

1.1" 5" for 5-axis machining


5-axis machining is one way of CNC machining. The machining center we usually use is a three-axis machining center. 3-axis refers to the X-axis, Y-axis and Z-axis of the machining center. A 5-axis machining center is the addition of two rotary axes to the three common linear axes of X, Y and Z. Two of the three axes of A, B and C have different motion patterns to meet the technical needs of various products.


1.2 5 main forms of five-axis machine tools


There are five types of five-axis machine tools on the market, mainly including the following five forms: the first is the double rotary head form, the two rotary coordinates directly control the direction of the tool axis; the second is the pendant rotary head form, two The coordinate axis is at the top of the cutter, but the rotation axis is not perpendicular to the linear axis. The third one is the double turntable form, and the two rotation coordinates directly control the space rotation; the fourth one is the drooping table, the two axes are on the table, but the rotation axis is not perpendicular to the axis. The fifth is a swing that starts with one rotation, two rotation coordinates on one tool and one on the workpiece.


1.3 Types of five-axis CNC machine tools

 5-axis CNC machines have several operations that can save you a lot of time and improve your current programs. There are several types of these machines to meet the needs of the growing manufacturing industry. Unique to 5-axis CNC machines is the arrangement of the rotary axes. They come in three different types including header/header, table/table and table/header.


 The rotary axis of this type of CNC machine is located at the head. They are made from 5-axis vertices that sit on a specific platform and pass through a fixed table to hold the workpiece in place. This gives vertices the opportunity to move specific parts, making 5-axis CNC machines the best choice for producing large parts. Due to their design, they typically have limited and tilted motion on the axis of rotation.

 b. table/head


In this type of machine setup, one of the axes of rotation is located in the table and the other axis of rotation is located in the handpiece. The axis of rotation is located in the head and has a limited range, while the axis of rotation is located in the table and has an unlimited range. Since the parts are on a rotating axis, this arrangement is limited to the number of products it can produce. One way this type of setup has a slight advantage over the head/head type is that it keeps the part spinning without worrying about hitting a specific limit.

 c. table/table


Here, all the axes of rotation of the machine are located inside the table, and the scope of the axes of rotation is also limited. The range of its axis of rotation is not limited. This machine arrangement has the smallest working envelope compared to other types of machines. Others have rated motors so they run fast.


Five-axis CNC machining 3
  1.4 5-axis machining ≠ 5-side machining
5-axis machining is very different from 5-sided machining. Many people don't know this and mistake 5-sided machining for 5-axis machining. 5-axis machining has 5 axes, which are x, y, z, a and b (or c). The x, y, z and a, c axes form 5-axis simultaneous machining. Suitable for hook surface processing, abnormal shape processing, hollow processing, punching, oblique holes and bevel cutting. 5-sided machining is similar to 3-axis machining. It can only machine five sides, but not special machining, oblique holes, chamfering, etc.

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